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A Journey Through the Chicken Laying Process

Hen looking at 3 eggs in her nest. Phot: Iowa State University

Have you ever went into your chicken coop and while grabbing those delicious and high nutrient eggs and thought to yourself, "how do chickens make these?"

The process of a chicken laying an egg is a marvel of nature, intricately woven into the fabric of a hen's reproductive system. From the formation of the egg within the hen's ovary to the moment it's laid, this post will guide you through each stage, shedding light on the fascinating journey of egg production.


The egg laying journey commences with ovulation, a complex process within a hen's reproductive system. Hens typically have one functional ovary, and ovulation occurs approximately every 24-26 hours. During ovulation, a developing egg, or ovum, is released from the ovary into the oviduct. 


The oviduct is an incredible reproductive organ where the magic of egg formation unfolds. Divided into sections, each with a specific function, the oviduct guides the egg through a series of transformations. 

  • Infundibulum (15 minutes): The released ovum is caught by the infundibulum, where fertilization may occur if a rooster is present
  • Magnum (3 hours): The egg white, or albumen is added in this time frame. The albumen provides essential proteins and acts as a protective cushion for the developing embryo
  • Isthmus (1.5 hours): Membranes that surround the egg are formed in the isthmus, encapsulating the egg and providing additional protection
  • Uterus (20 hours): The shell is developed and mineralized in the uterus. This is also where pigments may be added to create the unique color of the eggshell.

Shell Formation

The shell formation in chicken eggs is obviously a critical step in the egg laying process. The shell is primarily composed of calcium carbonate (compound that makes the egg shells harder), and the process takes around 20 minutes. Glands within the uterus contribute to the shell's formation, ensuring it is sturdy and protective. 

Laying the Egg

As the fully formed chicken egg moves into the uterus, the hen undergoes muscular contractions that facilitate the laying process. This process typically takes about 30 minutes. The egg is usually laid gently, completing the intricate journey from ovulation to the egg is ready for collection!

Pigmentation/Egg Coloring

 In the last hours before laying, pigments are applied to the eggshell. This part of the process is responsible for the array of colors seen in your chickens eggs. Depending on the breed, they range from white, brown, to various shades of blue and green (like Easter Egger chickens). 


For backyard chicken keepers and homesteaders, the joy of collecting fresh eggs is a gratifying culmination of the egg laying process. Providing comfortable nesting boxes and maintaining a stress free environment encourages hens to lay their eggs in designated spots, making the collection process straightforward and joyful.

The journey of a chicken laying an egg is a testament to the intricacies of nature. Each stage is a marvel of biological orchestration. Understanding this process not only deepens our appreciation for the eggs but also fosters a connection to the natural cycles of life on the homestead. 

Next time you savor a fresh egg, remember the extraordinary journey that brought it to your cooking pan.